You can find out more by clicking The manuscript is difficult to handle and to read, the result of centuries of inappropriate storage techniques, botched preservation efforts and degradation due to improper handling. [12], The decayed Spitzer Manuscript does not survive in the form it was discovered in 1906, and portions of it were likely destroyed during the World War II. [10][9] According to Indologist and Sanskrit scholar John Brockington, known for his Mahabharata-related publications, the table of contents in the Spitzer Manuscript includes book names not found in later versions, and it is possible that the parvas existed but were with different titles. [8], The Spitzer Manuscript were found near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Road. An illustrated palm-leaf manuscript of the Devī Māhātmya, a devotional text in praise of Durgā.Made in Bhaktapur, Nepal. 1912 RAO BAHADUR M RANGACHARYA The Ganita-Sara-Sangraha of Mahaviracharya. I. Hindu Manuscript on Paper, Dated VS 1646 = AD 1589/90. Mukund sought the expertise of RIT colleague Easton, who imaged the Dead Sea Scrolls and is currently working on the Archimedes Palimpsest. The oldest existing manuscript clearly identified as Mahāyāna is a birch bark manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sutra or Discourse on Perfect Wisdom consisting of 8000 [Lines]. They include verses on a number of Buddhist philosophies and a debate on the nature of Dukkha and the Four Noble Truths. The Cathach of the O’Donnells is older still, dating from about 560 AD, and is Ireland’s oldest manuscript (much older than the Book of Kells), but also cause of the world’s first codification of copyright, over a thousand years before the Statute of Queen Anne. Abrol and his family have been preserving these rare Islamic manuscripts, including old Quranic manuscripts, for over a century now. The results by the experts surprised everyone as it stated that the wooden box and the Idol belonged to the Dwapara Yuga. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spitzer_Manuscript&oldid=955737527, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 May 2020, at 14:24. The process, called aluminum metallization, transfers an image to a wafer by creating a negative of the image and depositing metal on the silicon surface. One of the oldest manuscripts of the Quran in the world, the codex was housed in the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in Egypt until the Napoleonic expedition of 1798, when a few folios were brought back to Paris. 700-year-old Hindu manuscript restored . The Spitzer Manuscript was found in 1906 in the form of a pile of more than 1,000 palm leaf fragments in the Ming-oi, Kizil Caves, China during the third Turfan expedition headed by Albert Grünwedel. The processed images of the Sarvamoola granthas will be stored in a variety of media formats, including electronically, in published books and on silicon wafers for long-term preservation. CBSE Class 10, 12 board exams 2021 dates: Big decision on board exams today? On December 22, 2011 the only original pandulipi (manuscript) of Ramayana dated 1648 AD were stolen. Washington, Oct 06: Two Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) scientists -- P.R. The Topkapi manuscript has been dated to about the early to mid 8 th century and is a nearly complete text of the Quran. The 700 verse text in Sanskrit, dated between the 6th and 8th century CE, is also known as Durgā Saptaśatī and Caṇḍī Pāṭha and is part of the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa. The story held a special significance for the Mewar ruling family, as the Sisodiya Rajputs counted Rāma among their direct ancestors in the Solar Dynasty. What is the Devī Māhātmya?. Suresh Abrol is a Hindu from Jammu. The Mewar Rāmāyaṇa, also known as the Jagat Singh Rāmāyaṇa, is the finest copy of the work ever commissioned by a Hindu ruler. They got their present form between 1200-200 BCE and were introduced to India by the Aryans. Batch no.01 (54 manuscript total pages 1847) batch no.02 (8 manuscirpts total pages 1980) Batch no.03 (49 manuscripts total pages 1953 ) Batch no.04 (25 manuscript total pages 602) Batch no.05 (20 manuscript total pages 401) Batch no.06 (27 manuscript total pages 1579) batch no.07 (45 manuscirpts total pages 2099) Sanskrit Purana. The manuscript. He estimates the existence of approximately 800 palm leaf manuscripts, some of which are in private collections. Mukund added Ajay Pasupuleti, a doctoral candidate in microsystems at RIT, and the team was formed. They are dated from around 12-1300 Mukund and Roger Easton - have successfully restored a 700-year-old Hindu philosophy palm-leaf manuscript with the help of modern imaging technologies. According to him, 15 percent of the manuscript is missing. [9] It is unique in a number of ways. Of what survives, predominant portions are now at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin State Library) in Germany and cataloged as SHT 810. The Abrol’s have set-up their own museum and manuscript library – Shashvat Art Gallery – in their house. [7] Sections of Buddhist treatises constitute the largest part of the Spitzer Manuscript. 1915 GEORGE KAYE Indian Mathematics 1904 WILLEM CALAND The Baudhyana srauta sutra, belonging to the Taittiriya samhita. When the English East India Company first came to India, they acknowledged the sub-continent as the bearer … photo source: WikipediaThe Kesh Temple Hymn is one of the oldest surviving pieces of literature in the world. Written in a variant of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, the Bakhshali manuscript is broadly recognized as the oldest Indian mathematical text, however, the exact age of the text is widely contested. From the earliest Jain illuminated manuscripts, the folios were encased in wooden covers that are often decorated with religious or historical themes. [11][note 2] The final portion of the Spitzer Manuscript is devoted to dialectics. IS.50-1983. The antiquity of the worn-out wooden chest and the idol was mind-boggling to say the least. [7] The manuscript fragments are actually copies of a collection of older Buddhist and Hindu treatises. The Hindu portions include treatises from the Nyaya-Vaiśeṣika, Tarkasatra (treatise on rhetoric and proper means to debate) and one of the earliest dateable table of content sequentially listing the parva (books) of the Mahabharata, along with numerals after each parva. This manuscript was carbon dated to 47~147 CE. These are the most ancient religious texts which define truth for Hindus. Each leaf of the manuscript measures 26 inches long and two inches wide, and is bound together with braided cord threaded through two holes. Also it has been a haunt of the learned Brahmins from all over the country for millennia. The Vedas are a large body of Hindu texts originating in Vedic period in nothern India, the Rig Veda being composed ca. The only books found among the Dead Sea Scrolls belong to the Old Testament which is an entirely Jewish corpus and the oldest book found among the Dead Sea Scrolls is the Book of Isaiah. Mukund and Roger Easton - have successfully restored a 700-year-old Hindu philosophy palm-leaf manuscript with the help of modern imaging technologies. [9] Studies by the Indologist Dieter Schlingloff on these Spitzer Manuscript fragments suggest that more ancient versions of the Mahabharata was likely expanded and interpolated in the early centuries of the common era. BJP MP decides to send divorce notice to wife after she joins TMC, Last few days for filing tax return, Income Tax department introduces this mantra, COVID-19: Russia will jointly produce Sputnik V vaccine with India, says Russian envoy. [8] The text is written in the Brahmi script (Kushana period) and some early Gupta script. The calibrated age of the manuscript by Carbon-14 technique is 130 CE (80–230 CE). "It is literally crumbling to dust," says Mukund, the Gleason Professor of Electrical Engineering at RIT. These two manuscripts are written in Sanskrit and were found in Rajasthan during the late 1800's. Images of each palm leaf, back and front, were captured in eight to 10 sections, processed and digitally stitched together. Mukund and Roger Easton - have successfully restored a 700-year-old Hindu philosophy palm-leaf manuscript with the help of modern imaging technologies. The experts also stated that the Idol was one of the oldest Hindu idols in existence. Rigveda is one of the oldest extant texts it is probably the world's oldest religious written text it is also believed that it is ten thousand year old and The text is a collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses originally there wher Eight books of rigveda and later two more books has been added, the Vedas contents philosophical or speculative questions about the origin of the universe and the nature of god, … The Spitzer Manuscript is a collection of palm leaf fragments found in Kizil Caves, China. Bureau Report, By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. The text and bounding lines are monochrome, rendered in black ink. The scientists traveled to India in December 2005 to assess the document stored at a monastery-like mathas in Udupi, India. DNA: Analysis of the 73-year-old terror path, DNA: Shortest day and long night of the year 2020. Heavy wooden covers sandwich the 340 palm leaves, cracked and chipped at the edges. The cultural-linguistic records; mainly the variation in form of Sanskrit used (from present-day) point out the origin of the Rig V… Description. Unlike numerous Indian manuscripts whose copies survive as early translations in Tibet and China, no such translations of the treatises within the Spitzer Manuscript have been found so far. [7][8] The calibrated age of the manuscript by Carbon-14 technique is 130 CE (80–230 CE). Later in the late eighteenth century, the Nawab of Awadh gifted a superb illuminated manuscript of the Padshahnama to King George III of England. I say this because Kashi is an old city and has utmost religious significance as a holy site. idol, statue or figurine that has stood the wear and tear of time to survive until the 21st century is the small 41 gms bronze-like alloy figurine of (Shiva or Vishnu - ?? we are not sure which). [3] According to Indologist Noriyuki Kudo, the Franco's 3rd-century estimate is a presumption based on a theory of palaeographic chronology. Mukund says he first became involved with the project when his spiritual teacher urged him to find a solution. [8] Some surviving fragments are now at the British Library, and are catloged as Or 15005/6–8, Or 15005/17–21 and Or 15005/30–32. Oldest manuscript in HMML’s collections, a 6th-century gospel book from Meryem Ana Kilisesi, Diyarbakir, Turkey ; Peshitta Institute biblical microfilms from the Middle East (now at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam) Arthur Vööbus microfilm collection (formerly at the Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago) To not go in a roundabout way, the oldest manuscript is most probably kept in Kashi (Varanasi). The Spitzer Manuscript is the oldest surviving philosophical manuscript in Sanskrit,[2] and possibly the oldest Sanskrit manuscript of any type related to Buddhism and Hinduism discovered so far. The whole text includes a little less than half of the … The oldest Hindu image (if at that time, any kind of Hindu religion, as we know it existed ??) The birch bark scroll is known as the Bakhshali manuscript after the village, which is now in Pakistan, where it was found buried in 1881. Easton, a professor at RIT's Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, brought in Keith Knox, an imaging senior scientist at Boeing LTS, as a consultant. [7], In addition to the Mahabharata, the Spitzer Manuscript refers to or includes sections from the Arthashastra and the Manusmriti (juridical chapters) – a tradition of collecting Hindu texts that is found in ancient Buddhist monasteries' collections such as the Kharosthi-script manuscripts of the Bajaur Collection discovered in Buddhist ruins of Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan since the 1990s, states Harry Falk and Ingo Strauch. The Spitzer Manuscript is the oldest surviving philosophical manuscript in Sanskrit, and possibly the oldest Sanskrit manuscript of any type related to Buddhism and Hinduism discovered so far. So the oldest known copies of Atharvaveda and Rigveda (2 of the 4 books) are kept at the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute in Pune, Maharashtra. That is to say, it belonged to a period called the Dwapara yuga, making it the oldest human artifact in existence. 1200 BCE, and its Samhita and Brahmanas complete before about 800 BCE. DNA: Jairam Ramesh apologizes to Vivek Doval, DNA: PM Modi at Sir Syed Ahmed's University, DNA: PM Modi's message to farmers from Rakabganj Gurudwara, DNA: Watch Non Stop News With Sudhir Chaudhary, Dec 21, 2020, Deshhit: Watch nation's top news in detail, Dec 21, 2020, West Bengal: Blood shed will take place in Bengal, if BJP gets votes, Zee Top 20: 20 big news related to winter season, New COVID-19 strain: Centre suspends all flights originating from UK to India; check details. Today, it is considered one of the finest pieces in the Royal Collection. Two Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) scientists -- P.R. Two Sanskrit words Rig and Veda constituting it translates to ‘praise or shine’ and ‘knowledge’ respectively. The date appears in the second-to-last line of text on the page shown here. The readings indicated a period around 26,450 BCE i.e about 28,450 years old today and around 23,300 years old than the Mahabharata times. [3][note 1] The Spitzer Manuscript was found in 1906 in the form of a pile of more than 1,000 palm leaf fragments in the Ming-oi, Kizil Caves, China during the third Turfan expedition headed by Albert Grünwedel. Time and a misguided application of oil have aged the palm leaves dark brown, obscuring the Sanskrit writings. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the texts constitute the oldest layer of … In the oral tradition before written language, long texts of histories and ideas were mem… Rig Veda, one of the oldest texts of the Indo-Aryan Civilization still extant, is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic hymns. The single column of 7 long lines is bounded by a pair of narrow double bounding lines, which extend the full height of the extant page. Hindu scripture The Vedas. Jain manuscript cover depicting the fourteen auspicious dreams of Queen Trisala, Mahavira's mother, which heralded his birth Western India 19th century Painted wood Museum no. According to the Indologist Eli Franco, t… [2] It is named after Moritz Spitzer, whose team first studied it in 1927–28. The epic known to the scribe of Spitzer Manuscript may have been in the form of a different arrangement and titles. It is often also known as the “Liturgy to Nintud” or “Liturgy to Nintud on the creation of man and woman”.The first discovered tablets that were a part of this work were found during the excavations of a library temple in Nippur, the most ancient Sumerian city which focused on the worship of the gods Enlil and Nenlil, who Sumerian… Known as the Sarvamoola Granthas, the manuscript attributed to scholar Shri Madvacharya (1238-1317) is a collection of 36 works, and contains Sanskrit commentaries on scholar Dvaita's philosophy of the meaning of life and the role of God. An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. ... Click Here. It did not belong to this “yuga” or epoch on the Hindu time scale just as the monk had claimed. The body of shared knowledge was passed down from generation to generation in an oral tradition that remained unbroken for centuries, nay- millennia. Handwritten manuscript from various provinces were acquired by National Museum. [3], The Spitzer Manuscript – consisting of a collection of treatises – is not the oldest known manuscript of, According to Brockington, "the evidence of the list found in the Spitzer manuscript is thus in my view not only compatible with but also valuable evidence, albeit incomplete evidence, for the shape of the text at the earliest date for which we have any testimony. 1911 DAVID SMITH & LOUIS KARPINSKI The Hindu-Arabic Numerals. The idol is over 28,000 years old. A version of this text was translated into Chinese in 179 CE by Lokakṣema and was amongst the first few Buddhist texts translated into Chinese. As early as the seventh century Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang took back hundreds of manuscripts from India. 1887 RUDOLF HOERNLE On the Bakhshali Manuscript. Two Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) scientists -- P.R. Sponsored by a grant from RIT, the team returned to the monastery in June and spent six days imaging the document using a scientific digital camera and an infrared filter to enhance the contrast between the ink and the palm leaf. A collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten different Mandalas (or the books; Sanskrit), it is the principal and oldest of the four Vedas. This list does not include Anusasanaparvan and Virataparvan. Based on the success of this project, Mukund is seeking funding to image other Dvaita manuscripts in the Udupi region written since the time of Shri Madvacharya. this link, Pakistan in New Zealand, 3 T20I Series, 2020/21. In that respect, it is most likely the oldest near-complete Quran in existence. Etching the sacred writings on silicon wafers was the idea of Mukund's student Pasupuleti. India’s manuscripts have for centuries captured the imagination of the world. The scientists ran the 7,900 total images through various image-processing algorithms using Adobe Photoshop and Knox's own custom software. © 1998-2020 Zee Media Corporation Ltd (An Essel Group Company), All rights reserved. The collection of manuscripts numbering 14,000 are in various … The Vedas, ancient Hindu poems, thought to be the oldest of all the Indian texts, describe Vimanas of various shapes and sizes: the "ahnihotra-vimana" with two engines, the "elephant-vimana" with more engines, and other types named after the kingfisher, ibis and other animals. Kalpa Vigraha is the Oldest Hindu Idol of Lord Shiva (26450 BC) Around 1959-60, a heavy chest containing the idol was reportedly given to CIA officials for safekeeping at Lo Monthang (called “Mustang” in CIA files) by a Tibetan monk accompanied by Khampa bodyguards. DNA: London's Coronavirus is more dangerous than China's! According to the Indologist Eli Franco, the palaeographical features suggest a date closer to 200–230 CE. Jain manuscript cover, 19th century. Mukund and Pasupuleti will return to India at the end of November to give printed and electronic versions of the Sarvamoola granthas to the monastery in Udupi in a public ceremony in Bangalore. The Vedas, ancient Hindu poems, thought to be the oldest of all the Indian texts, describe Vimanas of various shapes and sizes: the "ahnihotravimana" with two engines, the "elephant-vimana" with more engines, and other types named after the kingfisher, ibis and other animals. 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