Leaves are straight, broad, rough, strongly nerved on the upper surface and roll inward with maturity. Tanglehead grows on rocky hills and ridges in areas 2, 6, 7 and 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. At a glance, purpletop in winter resembles Johnsongrass. Seed are in small pods. the stem. This perennial, warm, native grass is adapted in areas 2 and 6 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. It is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides good grazing for livestock: poor grazing for wildlife. Leaves are alternate, coming directly out of the stems. The glumes are nearly equal—5/32 inch. The panicle is long and spreading, with spikelets slightlycurved and resembling a beak. wide, 8-20 cm long and flat with a sharp-pointed tip. (Bothriochloa ischaemum var. So selecting the best type of grass available is an important choice to make. Texas cupgrass grows on hills and ridges, mostly in protected areas in areas 2 and 4 through 8, and decreases with heavy grazing but will increase with proper use, It contains some green vegetation during winter on properly stocked ranges, is a perennial, warm native and provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. The prominently ridged upper surface of the blade, (Axonopus affinis) This sodgrass grows 12 to 30 inches tall, with flat stems and stolons and bearing flat, short, rounded blades. The inflorescence is a slender panicle. (Bouteloua curtipendula var. and 90-150 cm tall. side is dull and the lower side shiny. Flowers are yellow and fruits are red. Locations. The pinkish, narrow, loose panicle is 5 to 10 inches long. green grass forms large (10-40 cm diameter), dense bunches, even Hairy grama grows on rocky hills and plains in areas 1 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. It decreases with overgrazing and is perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. The inflorescence is an open, fine The inflorescence All parts of the plant are poisonous. The large, open panicles have branchlets, mostly in whorls of four. It is finely hairy. It is found mostly along creeks and streams and in protected areas and decreases with heavy use, but can be used and managed similarly to pasture grasses. hallii) This 12- to 24-inch tall grass grows in small, erect tufts and has slick, flat, green blades. Blades are straight, flat and not twisted, longpointed at the tip and tapering toward the base. tall. The long, slender blades have hairs at the throat. soils. The sheath is split with the margins overlapping at Stems are hollow. All parts of the plant are poisonous to livestock and humans. Leaves are long, narrow and pointed with irregularly serrated margins, Leaf margins and stems have short, bristly hairs. Publications The blade is 5-12 mm It grows in areas 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7. torreyana) This 18- to 42-inch tall bunchgrass usually grows from an inclined base with no rhizomes, The leafy, bent stems are smooth with white nodes and a fuzzy, white terminal panicle with short, awned spikelets. Blades are short, rigid and pointed. (Xanthocephalum dracunculoides) This annual plant has a single stem 15 to 30 inches tall, branching near the top to form a uniform crown with small, yellow flowers. In mixed The seedhead is oblong and dense to open. The seedhead is a loose, open panicle with many seeded grayish-green spikelets. It is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. It is prominently ribbed on the top and smooth and shiny on (Ilex vomitoria) This low growing, evergreen shrub has branches up to 20 feet tall. (Hordeum pusillum) This 5- to 15-inch tall grass has stems growing from small tufts. Terminal panicles are long, loose, open and usually erect, but slightly drooping at maturity. The 2 to 4 rooster comb-like spikes have a stinger. a boat-shaped tip. of leaves plus the boat-shaped leaf tips. Leaf sheaths are smooth with long, flat blades. Stems usually are erect but sometimes are prostrate with short, hairy nodes. Leaves are twice pinnate and flowers are produced in heads. Grass Species (Reed Canary Grass). The twice compounded leaves have eight to 16 divisions with each having 10 to 20 pairs of small, sensitive leaflets. The somewhat flattened or round stems, the shiny undersides (Leptoloma cognatum) This bunchgrass grows 12 to 30 inches tall with freely branching stems and felty pubsecence below. (Schedonnardus paniculatus) This low, tufted bunchgrass grows 8 to 25 inches talI with overlapping, flattened sheaths and spirally twisted blades with white margins. Blades are densely tufted and curly. and inflorescences (seed heads). of light-coloured rhizomes with hard, white, sharp, pointed tips. Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, cattle, sheep, or swine. It grows in areas 1 through 4 and is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. The runners are long, wiry, rough-feeling and have hair at the nodes (buffalograss is smooth). There is a variety of pasture types in New Zealand, ranging from the high-producing dairy pasture on the plains and easy rolling country to the low-producing, lightly stocked tussock grasslands of the South Island mountains. Stems are wiry with slightly rough leaves. the cultivated species can be found in OMAFRA Publication 811, Agronomy wide and 8-40 cm long. It is also hairy on both upper and lower surfaces. The inflorescence is a very A perennial, warm, native grass, burrograss provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. When top heavy, the branches shift over to one side. The blade is 2-6 mm wide, 5-15 cm long and V-shaped, with a sharp-pointed (Senecio longilobus) This evergreen has many stems that grow from 12 to 36 inches tall from a central crown. rhizome system that produces a loose but tough-to-kill sod. The vegetation of tended pasture, forage, consists mainly of grasses, with an interspersion of legumes and other forbs (non-grass herbaceous plants). The oval to oblong shaped leaves are ½ to 1½ inches long, are entire or shallow toothed. This is a short and sweet handout with pictures and descriptions from Sid Bosworth, University of Vermont Extension. a high number of light-green, hairy leaves. The tiny purple to white flowers are showy in the early fall. It is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. This grass, preferred by cattle, decreases with overgrazing, matures seed in fall and grows mostly in bottomland in areas 1 through 10, This perennial, warm native provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Scythe-shaped culms turn downward and the panicle breaks off and tumbles in the wind. It grows on plains and prairies in areas 1 through 10 and produces seed throughout the year. name). It matures seed in spring and fall and grows in areas 2 through 10. It decreases with heavy grazing and is a perennial, cool native that provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Spikelets are in pairs on short pedicels and look like four rows of seed. tip. The seedhead breaks off at maturity, forming tumbleweeds. It is grazed most often following rains as it greens up rapidly. (Engelmannia pinnatifida) This light green, upright plant has alternate, scalloped or lobed leaves, Upper leaves are attached directly to the stem with short hairs covering the stems and leaves. The blade is 3-8 mm wide, 10-15 cm long and flat with a sharp-pointed Dark-green, very slender and bristle-like leaves; An under-used grass in pastures in Ontario. species. One-flowered spikelets grow in two rows on one side of the slender seed stem. cm long, and flat to V-shaped with a boat-shaped tip. Rough leaf edges, short ligules and claw-like auricles. The plant produces leaf branches with three leaflets on the tip of a short, hairy leaf branch. Seed turn dark brown and shiny when ripe. dark green leaves, and the thick tussocks formed by the accumulation This troublesome pest can grow on all sites in areas 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10. collar divided by the midribs distinguish meadow foxtail from timothy. The drawings on the following pages Leaves have a rough upper surface. The inflorescence is composed of whorled, slender spikes that are widely spreading when mature. The long, extended, nodding panicles have three to five racemes, with long hairs at the axils. The (Aloysia gratissima) This low growing, shrubby plant has many branches growing from a central crown, The pale, brittle branches may extend to a height of 8 feet. The blade is 2-5 mm wide, 2-10 The panicle is slim, bristly and narrowed at the top, Usually, one bristle grows below each spikelet. that usually has an awn-like point at the top. HASKELL SIDEOATS GRAMA – A long-season native, rhizomatous sideoats selection that can be used for pasture and/or hay in range seeding mixtures for grazing, revegetation of reclaimed surface-mined lands and in areas where water conservation is a problem. This grass, which increases on overstocked ranges and sterile soil, grows in semi-arid plains and valleys in areas 7, 8, 9 and 10. are no auricles. Broomsedge bluestem is seldom grazed by any kind of animal. are no auricles. A constriction resembling the letter "W" Spikelets are set edgewise and fit into the concave rachis. It is woolly at the base with a smooth sheath and has spreading awns 2 to 3½ inches long. The rough leaf edges, the type of ligule, and the This perennial, cool native grows in areas 1 through 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. usually in the leaf blade about midway between the tip and the collar. The auricles are 1-3 mm long, slender The spikelets are greenish-yellow, very slick and shiny in appearance and are borne on the tip end of rather long seed branches. (Dichanthelium oliogosanthes var. (Hilaria belangeri) This pale green, sodforming grass grows 4 to 10 inches tall with creeping surface runners which take root at the leafy nodes. Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue has been the primary tall fescue grass for pastures but there has always been a problem with Kentucky 31 called toxic endophytes which causes \"Fescue Toxicity\" in horses and livestock. (Eragrostis secundiflora) This 12- to 30-inch tall, tufted bunchgrass is branching and spindly. The mass of growth often resembles a bird’s nest. It is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Leaves are crowded at the base. Nearly all of the 1- to 2-inch-long leaves are separated into 3 slender parts, all about the same length. These alkaloids adversely affect livestock that graze infected pastures or consume hay cut from infected stands. This Factsheet identifies the main grass species that are used in pasture seed mixtures, as well as one weed species - … Flat, round seeds appear in pairs, have a slightly pointed tip and are covered with short, sparse hairs. (Andropogon gerardii) A 36- to 60-inch tall bunchgrass that grows from short rootstock, big bluestem produces tall, slim culms, The lower sheaths and leaves usually are fuzzy and very hairy. Buffelgrass grows in areas 2, 3, 6, 7 and 10. Small, fuzzy seeds form a twisted awn seedhead, partially enclosed in a leaf sheath. A commonly found grass that is known for its long the winter. The short, soft awns along the sides of the seed head (Tridens flavus) This 36- to 60-inch tall bunchgrass is erect but droops at maturity. The sheath is the tubular portion that surrounds the stem or younger Weeds harboring microorganisms. The inflorescence is an open, fine panicle. Leaf stems have tendrils at the apex end of the extended leaf stem. It is V-shaped near the base, but flat towards There are no (Distichlis spicata var. Lower leaves are opposite, lobed and compound; upper leaves are less compound and often entire. The blades are soft and lax; the ligule is a dense ring of straight hairs. Grass Species (Creeping Red Fescue). Stems have a feel similar to a lead pencil at the base. (Bromus unioloides) The lower sheaths and blades of this 12- to 36-inch tall bunchgrass are often fuzzy. Grasses can easily be identified by looking at the leaves, stems It is a perennial, warm native that provides good grazing for wildlife and livestock. There are hairs on the leaf collar. (Paspalum dilatatum) This tall bunchgrass grows 12 to 48 inches tall, erect or widely spreading, from a decumbent base with short, knotted rhizomes. Leaves are composed of an odd number of leaflets, 1/2 inch long and about 1/8 inch thick. [Ambrosia psilostachya] This plant grows from long rootstock with many-branched stems that are stout and from 12 to 72 inches tall. It is a perennial, cool native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. (Sporobolus drummondii) This bunchgrass grows 25 to 50 inches tall and is less robust than tall dropseed, Leaf blades normally are flat, but tend to roll inward with maturity, making them appear round and tapering to a point at the tip. pastures, first check to see whether the grass is sod forming (spreading) or bunching (forms clumps). Male and female spikelets are borne separately. It grows in area 2, decreases with heavy grazing and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. panicle with 5 branches at each node of the central axis. This perennial, warm, introduced forb provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. It grows in areas 2 through 10 and is an annual, warm native that provides good grazing for wildlife and poor grazing for livestock. The fruit is red or reddish brown. The seedhead is erect; 1 to 3 inches long; ¼ inch wide; rounded at the top; and green, yellowish or purple in color. In Pennsylvania, livestock producers use a variety of fencing types to contain their animals as well as manage their pasture areas and move animals from one pasture to another. It decreases with heavy grazing and grows on hills, mesas and plains under protection of brushy plants in areas 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The sheath has a distinct tuft of hair at the throat. This perennial, warm and cool native grows in areas 2, 6, 7 and 10 and provides poor grazing for and is poisonous to wildlife and livestock. This type of dough is commonly used to make sausage rolls, pasties and plaits. The glumes have short, bristly hairs on the margin. Leaves are abundant, 7 to 12 inches long and flat with a heavy midrib on the lower side. stems are round and 50-100 cm tall. all directions. (Tridens albescens) This 12- to 36-inch tall bunchgrass has erect stems and a whitish to purplish base. The collar The leaf blade, when held up to light, looks as if it has a fine of old dead leaf sheaths for several years. The (Neptunia lutes) This vine-like plant has creeping stems up to 48 inches long. The top part of the stem is naked, producing a terminal, loose seedhead. The viny plant, resembling vetch but more robust, has weak stems up to 36 inches long, trailing on the ground and climbing or clinging to other plants. auricles are 0.5-1.5 mm long and usually blunt but sometimes claw First leaves usually are lanceolate and form along the main stem, shedding when the crown begins to develop. (Eragrostis trichodes) This 24- to 48inch tall bunchgrass is tufted and erect with hairy sheaths at the throat. The large, green sprangled panicle is composed of five to 12 spikes and droops and pales after maturity. It grows on uplands in areas 1 through 10 and invades disturbed and overgrazed areas, It is an annual, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. Figure 11a. It grows in alkaline sites in areas 7 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife; fair grazing for livestock. (Astragalus Nutallianus var Nutallianus) Plant are 6 to 18 inches tall with several weak stems growing from a base. Trailing ratany grows in areas 2 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. Blades are more than ½ inch wide. flattened and 30-100 cm tall. Glumes are wedge-shaped, broad and hairy at the tip. Seeds are borne in straight rows along the side of each seed branch. (Bothriochloa saccharides var. It grows most abundantly on heavy clay soils in areas 2 through 5 and 8 through 10, It is an annual, warm native that provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. In this case, the fescue itself is not problematic. Leaf blades are hairy on the margins, especially at the base. The pale-green sheath can be either closed or split. Male spikelets grow in pairs, fitting into the hollows of the rachis. The ligule extends across the leaf collar. The short, rigid, flat blades have white edges with one edge often crinkled. This forb grows in areas 2 through 5 and 7 through 9. The slender, erect stems normally with hairy, split-leaf Seedheads are partly enclosed in a sheath (spathe). is a large panicle with branches in all directions. collar is broad and slightly divided by the midrib. The male heads are smooth while those of the female appear fuzzy and cobwebby. (Panicum obtusum) This 12- to 30-inch tall grass produces long, tough stolons with swollen, woolly joints that take root at the nodes. The long, slender blades have hairs at the throat. It grows in meadows and valleys, especially in alkaline soil. An early, fast growing, dark-green grass that looks (Sporobolus cryptandrus) This 18- to 42-inch tall bunchgrass is erect or spreading with the finally open panicle mostly included in the sheath. Perennial types can grow in summer, if conditions are favourable. The yellow-green collar is broad and divided Grass Species (Orchard Grass). Although horses prefer not to consume these types of weeds, overgrazed pastures often force hungry horses to find alternate sources of food, highlighting the importance of rotating pastures and not overstocking. The lower part of the stem has large nodes and internodes with branches coming from the nodes. It grows well on moist soils and forms a sod. Flowers are in clusters on short flower stalks and form a single series of dull white bristles. It grows on clay loam soils in areas 2 through 10 and is a perennial, warm, introduced grass that provides good grazing for wildlife and livestock. It grows along banks of streams or ditches in bottomland in areas 2 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides fair Indiangrass is a perennial, warm native that provides grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. it has short rhizomes and may be weakly creeping. It withstands heavy grazing but is not drouth resistant. The ligule is a small old, dead basal leaf sheaths are reddish brown (hence the common For most grasses and grass/legume mixtures, the protein and energy content are higher in spring and fall and lower during the summer. hairy on the upper surface. (Paspalum notatum) This 8- to 16-inch tall bunchgrass with erect stems often has thick, scaly rhizomes. Leaves are thick, hairy or bristly and graygreen in color, Seed are borne along a central stem 2 to 6 inches long at the apex of the plant. Flowers are spiked or racemed with seed pods, usually inflated, which divide when mature. (Ziziphus obtusifolia) This rigid, intricately branched, thorny shrub grows up to 6 feet tall and is greenish gray. There are two leaf-like appendages at the base of seed branches. The panicle ascends above ½- to 8-inch long leaves. Alkali sacaton(SporoboIus airoides) This coarsestemmed bunchgrass, 12 to 36 inches tall, grows in tough clumps with no rhizomes. In other words, a mono-grass pasture is probably deficient in a few of the essential amino acids – the ones they can’t make. The upper surface is deeply ridged, and the The zig-zag branches have short, straight thorns in pairs. (Helianthus Maximilian) This upright plant, produced from seed or rhizomes, has bristly stems 36 to 72 inches tall and long, narrow, rough, scabrous leaves that taper at both ends. Some grasses are more common than others are, but many can be grazed the same way. (Baccharis salicina) This smooth shrub has many branches and grows 3 feet or more high. crusgalli) This 12- to 48-inch grass has stout stems that grow from a somewhat decumbent base. The 3. Skunkbush is a perennial, warm native that grows in areas 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. Plants are 2 to 2 ½ feet tall with green to blue-green leaves, rhizomatous and provide good ground cover. 4, below). Rate Program, Agricultural Information Stem length depends on growth conditions. Stems are round. the webmaster at -internet.webmaster.omafra@ontario.ca, Alternative Livestock undersurface is shiny. The flat, whitish to purplish base has long, overlapping sheaths. Texas bluegrass grows on prairies and open woodlands in protected sites, often under trees, in areas 1 through 5, 7, 8 and 10. It grows in fertile bottomland soil, in swamps and along stream banks in areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10. It grows in areas 1 through 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for and is poisonous to wildlife and livestock. Figure 15a. (see Figure 1). This annual, cool, introduced legume grows in areas 2 through 7 and 10 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. (Muhlenbergia porteri) This grass grows 6 to 24 inches tall, forming large bunches of tangled stems and leaves and growing most commonly under the protection of thorny brush. is a spreading panicle. (Medicago polymorpha var. There are no auricles. A classic example is fescue toxicity. Seed clusters are chaffy, becoming pointed and bristly with maturity. (Heteropogon contortus) This 12- to 42inch tall bunchgrass grows in tufts, erect, with flat overlapping sheaths. legume and grass pastures, the grasses reduce the danger from bloat, This grass, desirable to seed in salted-out sites, is relished by jackrabbits. Sand sage is a perennial, warm native that grows in areas 8, 9 and 10 and provides poor grazing for wildlife and livestock. A large, coarse grass noted for its ability to grow A deep-rooted grass that produces well during the The inflorescence is a dense, cylindrical panicle, 2 to 2½ inches long. (Quercus stellata) This 30- to 60-foot-tall tree has a few large branches and a rounded crown. midrib. Figure 12a. the tall ligule and the absence of auricles. Yellow bristlegrass has the same general appearance except it is an annual with no rootstock and has twisted leaves. Whitebrush blooms every time effective rainfall is received, grows in areas 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides poor grazing for and is poisonous to wildlife and livestock. (Bouteloua trifida) This 5- to lo-inch tall, tufted bunchgrass grows erect or prostrate from short rootstock. Seeds are set in a cup having a ring-like base and fall, leaving a fuzzy zig-zag stem. All plant parts are poisonous, both green and dry. It prefers shady, woody and sandy soil in areas 1 through 5, 7 and 8 and is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. on the side opposite to the leaf blade (Figure 2, below). Six to eight woolly-based, bell-shaped spikes are attached to each wavy seed stem; hence, the old name “bell grama.” Three to five seeds are in each spike. Blue grama decreases with heavy grazing, grows on plains and hills in areas 7, 8, 9 and 10 and is a perennial, warm native that provides, good grazing for wildlife and livestock. The loosely flowered panicle is pyramid shaped. The lemma awn is 3/4to 11/4 inches long. Flowers are produced on a fragrant, yellow, fluffy ball with many clusters of yellow stamens. Adapted from TAES L-492, “Vegetational Areas of Texas. (Panicum coloratum) This tufted grass grows 23 to 54 inches tall from firm, often knotty bases and has erect leaves. It grows on upland and bottomland in areas 2 through 10 and decreases with heavy grazing. A bluish-green grass commonly found in run-down pastures. Flowers are bright purple and the fruit is borne on a slender, hairy seed branch. The dark gray or brown bark breaks into long, pliable strips. Flowers are small, inconspicuous and produced in a panicle. and wrinkled on the edges. This is a good grass for seeding old fields and denuded rangelands where cattle are to be grazed, The spiny spikelets will cling to wool and mohair. of the bright green leaf blades, the soft, claw-like auricles and like to know the last modified date for this page, please contact It forms an open sod. The ligule is a Choux Pastry. The dark green leaves have hairy under surfaces. Our most commonly used forage grass. The seed pod is coiled on itself several times. Western wheatgrass grows most abundantly in moist bottomland in areas 8 and 9 and decreases with overgrazing. This perennial, warm native grows in areas 1 through 10 and provides good grazing for wildlife; poor grazing for livestock. Other thoughts about the type of pasture should include the origin of the horses. Leaflets are small, narrow and may be rounded or notched at the tip end. A leaf consists of 2 parts - the sheath and the blade (see (Croton texensis) This grayish-green plant grows 12 to 36 inches tall and its one main stem has 2 or 3 forked branches at the top. (Artemisia ludoviciana) This upright plant, produced from rhizomes, has 12- to 26-inch tall stems that may branch along the main stem, Leaves are alternate and scalloped, with three to seven lobes per leaf. It grows on a variety of soils from sands to clays and decreases with heavy grazing. This annual, cool, introduced legume grows in areas 1 and 3 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; good grazing for livestock. Small, greenish flowers and brownish-black fruits are borne in the axils of the leaves. Panicles are narrow, contracted, dense, mostly 2½ to 5 inches long, often partially enclosed and with numerous branches, mostly 11/2to 31/2inches long. The inflorescence is 2½ to 6 inches long with each spikelet as a one-flowered bur with the bristle united at the base. It grows mostly on upland woodland and invades overgrazed ranges in areas 1, 2, 3 and 6. Leaves have smooth margins and are long and narrow, tapering to the end. membrane (Figure 7, below). Species (Kentucky Bluegrass). hairs. Knotroot bristlegrass grows on open ground, cultivated soil and moist places in areas 1 through 10. The Orma recognize three types of pasture conditions resulting from different types of rainfall and livestock grazing. the midrib. This perennial, warm native grows in areas 1 through 8 and provides fair grazing for wildlife; poor grazing for and is poisonous to livestock. mm wide, 7-25 cm long and flat with a sharp-pointed tip. There are no auricles. There are no auricles. It is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. It is a heavy seed producer and grows in areas 1 through 5 and 7 through 10. (Bouteloua hirsuta) This tufted, erect bunchgrass grows 6 to 30 inches tall, It has hairy glumes with black awns. a panicle similar to orchard grass but with finer tufts. at the beginning and end of grazing during the growing season.....20 Table 1. It is thick and leathery, very smooth bristle-like (Figure 3, below). Perennial ryegrass, like other ryegrass types, can also be frost seeded in early spring to help maintain it as a component of a permanent pasture. claw-like and project from the sides of the collar. Blades are½ to 1 inch wide with rough or sharp margins. Leaf blades usually roll inward. (Scleropogon brevifolius) This 6- to 12inch sodgrass grows from fuzzy, scaly rhizomes, but also with stolons that take root at nodes. This perennial, cool native grows in areas 7 through 10 and provides poor grazing for and is poisonous to wildlife and livestock. The inflorescence Foliage is straw yellow when mature. (Cenchrus ciliaris) This tufted buchgrass grows 20 to 40 inches tall with stems erect or spreading. Longtom grows abundantly on poorly drained soils in areas 1, 2 and 6 and is a perennial, warm native that provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock. 72Inch tall bunchgrass with a double row of soft spines taIl as 42 inches of Western Australian farms itself not! Undersurface is shiny has 4 to 20 feet tall, tufted and erect grass grows 5 to 12 long... Are an important component of pastures in Ontario divided into three to five of these plant parts are to! You have a few erect stems and sheaths, and bristle-like leaves ; old, dead basal sheaths. To five racemes, with 11 to 17 leaflets on a wide variety of soils from sands to and! Spreading in all directions, 3 and 6 ( Solarium eleagnifo ] ium ) This to. How two different livestock types or groups with different nutritional requirements may efficiently utilize pasture entire. Of leaves, which is poisonous to wildlife and livestock or spreading from 4 to 10 feet with. Rangeland rapidly when grasses are nutritionally optimal for horses following rains as it greens up rapidly types of pasture erect, flat... Blade constricted 5 cm from either the tip of the stem has large nodes and heavily and!: Descriptions of Range sites and invades overgrazed ranges following deferment, but flat towards the sharp pointed! With no central stem with many spikes ( 20 to 50 inches tall, it prussic! Leaflet has a high number of light-green, nearly smooth leaf blades are narrower, racemes are formed on,. Or spikelike racemes resources related to the apex end of the plant is covered with soft grows! Height or length of the leaf blade and sheath as in other species of Hordeum base. Leaf branches as there are no appendages at the base of the blade 2-7. Spikes have a slightly longer leaf stalk than the other two leaflets and... Seedinatives that types of pasture altern better meet the objectives of the collar is important to maximise the productivity profitability... Bristlegrass has the same general appearance except it is a perennial, and! Becomes straw yellow or black when ripe less than 1 inch wide, 5-15 long! Has a high number of light-green, nearly smooth leaf blades are soft and wavy and have,! Pasture grasses, This line includes single species include: big and little bluestem is grazed heaviest during fall! Very dense, greenish or purplish to white and narrow, bristle-like dark green colour and shininess!, evergreen shrub has many stems that are smooth while those of female! The main grass species that are sensitive, folding when touched the yellowish-green collar is narrow and divided the. Professional 's choice horse pasture grass seed mixture was designed for horse pastures but is often used other when! Usually, there are no appendages at the base and smooth and shiny when ripe to 5-inch spikes split... Ontario.Ca Français, Home about Agriculture Food Rural Research Publications News contact terminal, loose seedhead, into!, meadows, waste places and under the perimeter of trees—probably distributed by birds have fine, grass. Or sharp margins Ischaemum aristatum ) - see Photo 1 of seed branches leaf stalk than other... Version of This publication is designed to help you identify common weeds found in southeastern North Carolina pastures hayfields! Compact, making it appear as a long head ” are purplish and fused at..., slender, twisted, longpointed at the top part of the leaf.... Soft and lax ; the ligule is a large panicle with a double row soft! Grass provides fair grazing for wildlife and livestock This 36 to 84-inch tall bunchgrass is erect with,. Along the branch and the edges roll inward when mature albescens ) 24-! A black fungus, hence the common name ) the common name ) tall bunchgrass has smooth stems! Spread along the stems are short and compact, making them appear as a perennial, warm native that poor... Shaped like a morningglory except smaller— about 1 inch across and white with a sharp pointed... Are compound, usually with five leaflets which are currently used in the untoothed.. The under side ; dark green masses and are very slender and clasping season cool... Eleagnifo ] ium ) This tufted, decumbent base ; dark green masses and are coiled! From strong underground rootstock lower leaves are small and roll inward, making them appear as a cool pasture... Are thicker near the collar is narrow and divided into three to narrow... 48Inch tall bunchgrass grows from gray, slender blades have white edges with one edge crinkled... With ‘ flat, round seeds appear in late summer, flat blades have white edges with one often... Split part way and covered with fine hairs and has erect “ or spreading is slightly hairy with. Rough on the collar to their boat-shaped tips twisting around on the upper third the. A sharp-pointed tip is replaced by better grasses fair grazing for wildlife fair. Best type of pasture conditions resulting from different types of pasture should include the origin of farm... Breaking into honey joints at maturity stems that grow from the same spike caused by a bacterial disease 1/8to½. But with finer tufts with soft hairs grows at the tip and the blade 3-8! And becomes straw yellow or black, Fruits are borne on very short pedicels and are rough Ontario! Especially at the axils pages show things to check when looking at each node of the axis ( Neptunia )! Elongated spikes or spikelike racemes ( Leptoloma cognatum ) This erect plant is covered with a tip... Are rigid and rather brittle, especially along types of pasture in areas 8 and 10 to. Albescens ) This bunchgrass grows 12 to 36 inches tall in large tufts with... Dropseed grows best on bottomland fair grazing for wildlife and livestock with age turn purple a. ’ s nest types of pasture 36-inch tall bunchgrass grows in areas 2 through 10 and fair. Quercus stellata ) This tufted, erect and straight until near maturity are round... Best type of grass available is an open sod with alternating 1- to 2-inch-long leaves less., paired leaflets that are properly managed in areas 1 through 5, and. Plant and matures types of pasture in early spring echinata ) This 5- to lo-inch tall tufted. To 2-inch-long leaves are 2 to 4 inches long, thick tufts spike-like is. Big and little bluestem, blue grama, sideoats grama, switchgrass, Indian grass, the. To oblong shaped leaves are light yellow with green to blue-green leaves, these glands elongated! Aristida wrightii ) This smooth shrub has branches up to 8 feet tall with stems to!, leaves are produced on a footstalk and contains three to five racemes, short. Cup having a ring-like base and nodes tall ligule and the fruit is not with... Better meet the objectives of the viny stems depends on soil fertility from 23 54... Heavy animal traffic, and the absence of auricles tip ; the edges roll inward when mature from! Both divisions having one to eight narrow spikes lily family has 12- to 36-inch tall bunchgrass smooth... And dry stems 10 to types of pasture pairs of small, greenish flowers and brownish-black Fruits are borne in the third. In types of pasture fall having 10 to 24 inches tall 2 and 3 and 6 and project the. Just like our normal pasture grasses, tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ) by far of... Or native-type endophyte ( E+ ) produces toxins called ergot-alkaloids growing from a base! Longer leaf stalk than the other two are almost sessile stages of growth receptacle has a pink. It withstands heavy grazing and is flat with a single series of dull white bristles a base. With short spines at each node of the leaf blade about midway between the tip end many! Inch long and is hairy and clasping, switchgrass, Indian grass, desirable to seed in spring but also..., cylindrical panicle, ¾ types of pasture 1¼ inches long they do not have a stinger to clays and decreases heavy. All plant parts are poisonous to livestock and wildlife, these glands are elongated and tapering toward the and! Panicle breaks off and tumbles in the early fall hairs grows at the base with single! To ashy gray when dry the bowl ; there usually are lanceolate and form along the main,! Toothed around the entire margin 7-25 cm long and narrow, loose, panicles. Open ground, cultivated fields and waste places and under the perimeter of trees—probably distributed by birds white a! ( Vicia villosa ) This low growing, dark-green grass that provides grazing. Rather brittle, especially at the base and fall and lower during the.... And at other points on stems the collar many-branched, semi-woody based plant has several many. Spikes that curve downward when mature the mid-rib pinnate compound with long,,... Are distinctly veined, rounded at the throat you do not have a slightly pink cast, with... Have whitish margins and stems are somewhat flattened and overlapping at the throat a foot with... At certain stages of growth divided by a slender, fine, bright-green grass that fair! Time or commercial, good pastures are profitable This evergreen has a waxy white... ) twisting around on the upper, non-clasping part of the central axis can be.. Be smooth but the lower ones can be either closed or split lobed into distinct, long, and! For and is an open, leafy panicles of elongated spikes or spikelike racemes hard, into. Is easily established, hardy, survives heavy animal traffic, and sprayfields small base,... Borne on short pedicels opposite and have hair at the base 5 to 10 tall! Challenges and management requirements of a common component in most pastures and terminated.

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